Articles Tagged with New Jersey employment attonreys

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New Jersey whistleblower retaliation lawsuits turn on the question of evidence.  This is a frequent area of dispute in New Jersey employment law.  A New Jersey appeals court recently examined the evidence necessary to establish a claim of whistleblower retaliation under the New Jersey Conscientious Employee Protection Act, New Jersey’s Whistleblower Law, in the case of Carol Smith vs. Konica Minolta Business7-300x225 Solutions U.S.A., Inc.


Carol Smith worked for Konica Minolta Business Solutions, U.S.A., Inc. (“KMBS”) as a sales representative selling business document management technology and solutions for fourteen years.  She worked out of KMBS’s Iselin office.  She used her own personal laptop throughout her employment.

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In February of 2021, Governor Murphy finally signed the long awaited “New Jersey Cannabis Regulatory, Enforcement Assistance, and Marketplace Modernization Act” which legalizes recreational, adult (at least 21 years old) use of marijuana (or “cannabis”).

One of the major concerns which has existed since the very beginnings of this Act was how it was going to effect drug testing in the workplace and what job protections might need to be created in relation to employees’ marijuana use.  The Act does address job protections.  However, while several sections of the Actphoto__1894482_mclaughlin_nardi_4712 came into effect immediately, the employment-related provisions are not expected to take effect until the newly-created Cannabis Regulatory Commission establishes regulations providing specific procedures and rules for generally practices in compliance with the Act.  That Commission is supposed to do so within 180 days of the passing of the Act, bringing us to approximately August 21, 2021 before marijuana job protections will come into effect.

The Marijuana Act specifically prohibits employers from refusing to hire, firing, or taking some other adverse action against someone specifically because that person uses marijuana recreationally. Indeed, an employer cannot discriminate against an individual in compensation or in any terms, conditions, or privileges of employment based upon marijuana use outside of the workplace. Thus, marijuana use appears to have the same protections as other protected classifications such as race and gender discrimination.  Again, we will have to see how the Committee addresses this to see what the specific rules will be.

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A recent New Jersey employment law decision in the case of Matter of Shyner examined the procedures available to New Jersey State Troopers to appeal employer imposed discipline, and the standards which appellate courts will utilize to review disciplinary decisions by the Superintendent of New Jersey State Police.

The Shyner Case.

Dawn Shyner was a lieutenant in the New Jersey State Police.  In 2014 she called 911 because of an altercation with her estranged husband; local police responded.  No charges were filed, nor was a domestic violence restraining order sought.  In accordance with New Jersey State Police protocols, she notified her supervisor and surrendered her weapon.  During that meeting her supervisor told her that he did not believe the incident would result in a domestic violence investigation, although undoubtedly an ordinary internal affairs investigation would ensue.

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New Jersey employment law provides that government employees may be fired for conviction of a crime, and for many crimes they must be fired.  However, if they are exonerated they may be reinstated to their position.  They may be subject to further discipline, but if they are not they may also receive back pay, police-hoboken-train-stationseniority and benefits for the period of their suspension.

Suspension During Criminal Charges

New Jersey Civil Service Commission regulations provide that an employee’s conviction of a crime is grounds for discipline.  An employee suspended while a criminal complaint or indictment is pending must be served with a Preliminary Notice of Disciplinary Action (known as a “PNDA”). The PNDA should include a statement that forfeiture of the employee’s position may result, and that the employee may choose to consult with an attorney.  In this case representation by an attorney is always advisable.  Within five days of receipt of the PNDA, the employee may request a departmental hearing. If no request is made (within five days or an agreed upon extension) the employer may issue a Final Notice of Disciplinary Action (an “FNDA”).

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Construction, Building, Build, IndustrySmall business and contractors often hire independent contractors rather than employees for certain projects and services. Generally, this allows the business to avoid responsibility and expense related to withholding and paying taxes, and obtaining insurance for those workers. However, case law in New Jersey over the years has slowly been narrowing the definition of who may qualify as an independent contractor.

In 2015 for example, the New Jersey Supreme Court decided the case of Hargrove v. Sleepy’s LLC.  In that case, the Court found that, when defining a worker as an employee or independent contractor in relation to wage and hour or wage payment claims. The courts will consider the factors set forth in the “ABC” Test. The ABC test considers: (1) the control exercised by the employer of the worker’s work, (2) whether the services performed by the worker were outside the usual course of the employer’s business or performed outside the employer’s place of business, and (3) whether the individual worked in an independently-established business or occupation. So, in order to be an independent contractor, the worker had to be: (1) free from the employer’s control, (2) working away from the employer’s place or business OR working in an area outside the area of work generally conducted by the employer, AND (3) customarily engaged in his/her own established business or profession.

In November of 2019, a new bill was introduced in the New Jersey Senate proposing to limit the use of the independent contractor classification for workers even more. In relation to the second prong, workers could not qualify as independent contractors by physically working outside of the place of business of the employer; the worker would have to provide a service to the employer which is outside the usual course of the employer’s type of business.

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